Role of Governor of India

Just like the President of India who is the head of the republic , Governor is the head of the state. Chief Minister is the executive head while Governor is the nominal head of a state. In Governor’s name all the executive actions are taken but in reality hardly he gives his consent for the executive actions. Governor is devoid of taking any big decision. In a state Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers have the real powers in the executive dealings.
According to Indian Constitution amendment , in 1956, the same person can be the Governor of two or more states. In Union Territories of Delhi, Andaman Nicobar Island and Pudducherry, Lieutenant governors are appointed. An IAS officer, govern the other union-territories. In Chandigarh. The governor of Punjab is also the lieutenant governor of Chandigarh.
The power of the governor of the state is equal to the power of the Lieutenant Governor of a union-territory and both of them are appointed by the President of India for a period of 5 years.

Powers of the Governor

The Governor of a state has executive, legislative and judicial powers. Governor also also possesses certain discretionary or emergency powers. Governor does not have any diplomatic or military powers.

Executive powers

The Council of Ministers including the Chief Minister of the state, the Advocate General and the members of the State Public Service Commission can be appointed by the Governor. State Public Service Commission members cannot be removed by the Governor and can can only be removed by an order of the President.
Governor may advises the president of India in the appointment of judges of High courts.
The Governor has the authority to appoint the Judges of the District Courts.
In the Vidhan Sabha, if the governor feels that if the Anglo-Indian community has not been properly represented. In the Legislative Assembly of the state, Governor can nominate one or more member of the Anglo-Indian community.

Legislative Powers

The Governor has the right of addressing and sending messages, summoning, deferring and dissolving the State Legislature. To do this the Governor must consult the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers before taking such decisions.
The Governor of India, starts the first session each year of the state legislature , addresses the Assembly and the outlines the new policies on administration of the ruling government.
Annual financial statement is laid by the Governor before the State Legislature and ‘Money Bills’ recommendations and demands for grants are made by him/her.
Governor has the power to appoint the State Finance Commission. In case of any emergency , he has the authority to advances out of the Contingency Fund of the State.
Only when Governor approves the bills that are passed by the Legislative Assembly ,it becomes a Law. Governor also has the power to send back the bill , if it is not money bill to Vidhan Sabha for considering again. However, if the Vidhan Sabha sends back the bill to the Governor for the second time, Governor has to sign it.
When the Legislative Assembly is not in session , Governor has the power to announce an ordinance it has to be brought as law immediately. In the next session, in the state legislature the ordinance is presented before the people and it remains functional for 6 weeks unless the ordinance us approved by the legislature .

Judicial Powers

Governor has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishments. Also he can suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of an of offense against the law.
In the appointment of the Chief Justice to the High Court of that particular state, governor advises the President.

Emergency Powers

In the Vidhan Sabha of the state, if any party do not gets any majority, Governor has the authority to use his discretion to select the Chief Minister.
In the state ,if there is a particular emergency is there Governor can inform the President via the official report , and imposes the ‘President’s Rule’ on the behalf of the President. In such circumstances, Governor can ignore the the advice or functions of the Council of Ministers, and directs upon himself, the workings of the state.

Eligibility Criteria

As per the Constitution of India, the following are the eligibility criteria for the appointment of the Governor in a particular state:

  • He or she must be a citizen of India.
  • He or she must have completed 35 years of age.
  • He or she must not hold any other office of profit.
  • He or she must not be a member of the Legislature of the Union or of any other state.
  • There is no bar to the selection of a Governor from amongst the members of the Legislature, provided that on appointment, he or she immediately ceases to be a Member of the Legislature.

Salary of the Governor

As specified in the Governor’s (Emoluments, Allowances and Privileges) Act of 1982 , monthly salary of a Governor is Rs 1,10,000.During his office term of 5 years, also entitled to certain benefits and allowances, which shall not be diminished.

Facilities for the Governor

  • Facilities such as medical facilities, residence facilities, traveling facilities, reimbursement of phone and electricity bills, and many other allowances along with the monthly salary,President can enjoy these facilities. Official residence free of rent , Governor is provided with.
  • Free medical services for life, governor and his family is provided with. Across the country, for traveling, a fixed amount of money is alloted to Governor.
  • Selection Process of the Governor

    By the process of direct or indirect voting , Governor is not elected . The President of India, for a period of 5 years appoints the Governor of a particular state. All the eligibility criteria, must be met by the Governor in order to be appointed by the President.

    Duty Term of the Governor

    • For a time period of 5 years, a governor of a state in India holds office , Earlier termination is possible.
    • On the grounds of gross delinquency namely corruption, bribery and violation of the Constitution. Governor can be dismissed by the President and is advised by the Prime Minister of the country.
    • There is no retirement age of the Governor, as for a fixed term governor can stay in office. There is no provision for a Governor to be impeached from office.

    Pension of the Governor

    As per Indian Constitution, Governor has a fixed pension. A governor have a fixed pension besides a Governor also have other allowances such as secretarial allowances and medical benefits for life.

    The Residence of the Governor

    Of a particular in India, Governor is the nominal head. During his or her period of office, Governor can reside in the Raj Bhavan . On the expiry of Governor’s period in office, he must vacate the the Raj Bhavan.

    Interesting Facts

    In India, Sarojini Naidu was first woman to become a Governor of a state. From 15 August 1947 till her death on 2 March 1949 , she was the Governor of Uttar Pradesh.

    List of Governors of India

    S No. Name of State Name of Governor
    1 Andhra Pradesh Shri E.S Lakshmi Narasimhan
    2 Arunachal Pradesh Shri J.P. Rajkhowa
    3 Assam Shri Padmanabha Balakrishna Acharya (Add. Charge)
    4 Bihar Shri Ram Nath Kovind
    5 Chhattisgarh Shri Balramji Dass Tandon
    6 Goa Smt. Mridula Sinha
    7 Gujarat Shri Om Prakash Kohli
    8 Haryana Prof. Kaptan Singh Solanki
    9 Himachal Pradesh Shri Acharya Dev Vrat
    10 Jammu and Kashmir Shri N. N. Vohra
    11 Jharkhand Shrimati Droupadi Murmu
    12 Karnataka Shri Vajubhai Vala
    13 Kerala Shri Justice (Retd.) Palaniswamy Sathasivam
    14 Madhya Pradesh Shri Ram Naresh Yadav
    15 Maharashtra Shri Chennamaneni Vidyasagar Rao
    16 Manipur Shri V. Shanmuganathan (Add. Charge)
    17 Meghalaya Shri V. Shanmuganthan
    18 Mizoram Lt. General (Retd.) Nirbhay Sharma
    19 Nagaland Shri Padmanabha Balakrishna Acharya
    20 Odisha Dr. S. C. Jamir
    21 Punjab Shri Kaptan Singh Solanki
    22 Rajasthan Shri Kalyan Singh
    23 Sikkim Shri Shriniwas Dadasaheb Patil
    24 Tamil Nadu Dr. K. Rosaiah
    25 Telangana Shri E.S Lakshmi Narasimhan (Add. Charge)
    26 Tripura Shri Tathagata Roy
    27 Uttar Pradesh Shri Ram Naik
    28 Uttarakhand Dr. Krishan Kant Paul
    29 West Bengal Shri Keshari Nath Tripathi
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