In India, Vidhan Sabha or legislative assembly is a legislative body. It is the lower house of a state legislature.The members are directly elected by the people of the state via election.The state’s Chief Minister, his Council of Ministers and rest of the MLAs are elected via elections.
To state assemblies , no uniform number of seats have been allocated. On the basis of the population of the respective state, the seat number for a particular assembly is fixed and is decided by the Election Commission of India. The assembly seats for Uttar Pradesh in legislative assembly is 404, which is highest number of assembly seats because the population of Uttar Pradesh is highest among all the states of India. Likewise, Sikkim’s legislative assembly has 32 seats because it has small population.
Qualification for Membership of the Vidhan Sabha
A person seeking membership of the Vidhan Sabha must possess the following qualifications:
- He must be a citizen of India.
- He must not be less than 25 years of age.
- He must have a sound mind.
- He must not have any criminal record declared by a competent court.
- He must not be bankrupt.
- He should be a voter from any constituency of the concerned state.
Presiding Officers in Vidhan Sabha
All the meetings of the Vidhan Sabha, the Speaker is responsible for managing.When speaker is absent then Deputy Speaker conducts the office.In the Vidhan Sabha , Speaker manages dicussions and debates and the judgement is neutral .Members of the Assembly are elected by the both the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker by the vote majority.
Legislative Powers of Vidhan Sabha
By the Constitution, both the houses have been given equal powers . Law making is the prime responsibility and function of the assembly.
Exclusive Powers of Vidhan Sabha
- A motion of no confidence can only be initiated in the Vidhan Sabha.
- In the case of money bill, the Vidhan Sabha is the sole authority.
- In ordinary bills, the decision of the Vidhan Sabha is final.
- By a majority of two-thirds, the Vidhan Sabha can ask the President to create or dissolve the Vidhan Parishad.
- It has the powers to make laws on every subject in the state list and concurrent list.
- The members of the legislative assembly play a role in electing the President of India. The elected members of the legislative assemblies and the Parliament elect the President.