Geography of Punjab

Punjab is located in North Indian Plain, Punjab has area of 50,362 kmsq.  It shares its borders with Pakistan on the west, on its northern frontier by the Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh on the east while the south is bordered by Rajasthan and Haryana.

Major part of Punjab lies in north Indian fertile land with an abundance of Alluvial Soil which is irrigated by rivers and manmade canals. Mountains height is almost 300 meters above sea level strengthen the land.

On the southern part, and its soil becomes semi arid, lies Thar. Shivalik, foothills of the Himalayas, also run along the state.

Punjab’s land is categorized under the seismic zones II, III, and IV.


Punjab’s climatic conditions are extreme in both the summers and the winters. The temperature varies from -4 degrees and goes up to 49 degrees . The places in the state that are close to the Himalayan range have heavy rainfall, while the southern parts have high temperature and low rainfall.

Punjab Seasons

In April, Summers starts and continue till June where the temperature goes beyond 40 C. This is not the high time for tourism in Amritsar. From July rain starts and it stays till October. November has winter and when it reaches its peak in Late December and Early January, the Temperature goes to -4.


Punjab can be further categorized into several categories and regions like :

On the south of Sutlej, land is known as Malwa. The region of Malwa is long and extensive and has a total of 11 districts. Several major cities including Patiala, Ludhiana, Sangrur, Bhatinda, Barnala, Firozpur, Moga and Barnala all are found in Malwa which is extremely rich in cotton crop.

A part of the historical Punjab including the land of Amritsar, Tarn Taran and Gurdaspur forms the Majha. This region lies between the Beas, Ravi and Sutlej. This is the place that forms as the centre of Punjab and is considered for being the place where Sikhism originated.

Between Sutlej and Beas lie as a region called the Doaba.  The word literally translates to a piece of land that has rivers on two sides. Here, the green revolution started in India. This region majorly excels in the produce of wheat. The famous places and cities in the region of Doaba include Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala and Nawanshahr.

Administrative Subdivisions

Punjab has a total of 22 districts that are further sub divided into Tehsil, Block and etc

  • Amritsar
  • Barnala
  • Bathinda
  • Firozpur
  • Fazilka
  • Fatehgarh Sahib (Sirhind-Fategarh)
  • Faridkot
  • Gurdaspur
  • Hoshiarpur
  • Jalandhar
  • Kapurthala
  • Pathankot
  • Ludhiana
  • Mansa
  • Moga
  • Ajitgarh
  • Muktsar
  • Patiala
  • Rupnagar
  • Sangrur
  • Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)
  • Tarn Taran

Chandigarh is the capital of the state , Punjab has a total of 157 town and 22 districts. Some of the major cities in Punjab are Moga, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Amritsar, Nawanshahr, Patiala, Bathinda and Ajitgarh.

Punjab Map


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